Types of Technology
There are two broad types of technology: hard and soft. Hard technologies are related to physics, chemistry, and economics. Soft technologies are used in multiple areas and have numerous applications. Hard technologies are used for specific products or processes. Examples of fixed technologies include fungicides, which are used to remove bacteria and mold. The two types of technology are related to economics, sociology, and management. However, each type has its unique set of benefits and uses.
Tech-progressivism is a stance that actively supports technological and social change. Techno-progressivism advocates increased access to information and new technologies, but it also supports social change as well. It supports the development of new technologies and new ways to use them to advance society. Techno-progressivism is an increasingly popular movement in social movements and is becoming more popular in the West. For many, techno-progressivism is a practical solution to many issues.
For example, the renewable energy movement is a good example of techno-progressivism in action. This movement is democratizing and science-centered, but it is also facing backlash from the oil companies. In the 2015-16 campaign cycle, five oil companies spent more than $25 million on lobbying efforts and campaign contributions. Exxon Mobil and Koch Industries spent over $8 million lobbying on Capitol Hill. But despite these huge donations, renewable energy advocates are gaining steam.
Techno-progressivism has a strong ideological basis. It seeks to promote social reform through radical technology, which would liberate the human body and science. Sociologists such as J.B.S. Haldane have called for human genetic enhancement, and have argued that biotechnology is “the revolution of Prometheus.”
Neo-Luddism, or new Luddism, is a movement that opposes many forms of modern technology. The name Luddite is derived from the history of the English Luddites, who were opposed to technology in the past. Those who follow this ideology consider technology to be harmful and dangerous, and seek to avoid it as much as possible. However, there is a dark side to Neo-Luddism.
Although neo-Luddism has several forms, most of its followers are skeptical of technology, globalization, and corporate profit. Some Neo-Luddites advocate for greater governmental control over technological advancement and increased consumer and corporate responsibility. Some are radical, calling for the dismantling of modern civilization’s technological superstructure. Some neo-Luddites are activists and academics.
Some Neo-Luddites oppose modern technology on anarchistic grounds, believing that unbridled technological growth will lead to an increase in corporate and governmental control and social inequality. Some even advocate a “back to nature” approach to technology. Neo-Luddites are often found in the environmental and anti-globalization movements. Whether neo-Luddites are peaceful individuals or radicals, there is no consensus on their philosophies or beliefs.